Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment
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HR directors commonly sit on company executive teams because of the HR planning function. Numbers and types of employees and the evolution of compensation systems are among elements in the planning role. Additionally, this area encompasses the realm of talent management. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Human resources disambiguation.
For other uses, see Manpower disambiguation. Management accounting Financial accounting Financial audit. Business entities. Corporate group Conglomerate company Holding company Cooperative Corporation Joint-stock company Limited liability company Partnership Privately held company Sole proprietorship State-owned enterprise. Corporate governance. Annual general meeting Board of directors Supervisory board Advisory board Audit committee.
Corporate law. Commercial law Constitutional documents Contract Corporate crime Corporate liability Insolvency law International trade law Mergers and acquisitions. Corporate title. Commodity Public economics Labour economics Development economics International economics Mixed economy Planned economy Econometrics Environmental economics Open economy Market economy Knowledge economy Microeconomics Macroeconomics Economic development Economic statistics.
Types of management. Business analysis Business ethics Business plan Business judgment rule Consumer behaviour Business operations International business Business model International trade Business process Business statistics. Activity-based working Chief human resources officer Employee off-boarding Human resource accounting Human resource management Industrial and organizational psychology. The Balance. Retrieved L; Jackson, J. H Human Resource Management.
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Business Ethics - HRM
Business entities Corporate group Conglomerate company Holding company Cooperative Corporation Joint-stock company Limited liability company Partnership Privately held company Sole proprietorship State-owned enterprise. Corporate governance Annual general meeting Board of directors Supervisory board Advisory board Audit committee. Corporate law Commercial law Constitutional documents Contract Corporate crime Corporate liability Insolvency law International trade law Mergers and acquisitions. Trade Business analysis Business ethics Business plan Business judgment rule Consumer behaviour Business operations International business Business model International trade Business process Business statistics.
Business and economics portal. For that reason, ethical values are regarded as an essential component for sustaining superior performance and encourage competitive advantage Trust, Equally, its revealed about the growing concern and the existence of unethical behaviors within the educational sector organization, in this respect, several issues that create some lots of unethical challenges such as poor service delivery, abuses, scandals, mismanagement, lack of performance as well as bribery and corruption.
In the same manner, changing the unethical conduct of employees within the organizations, through the effects of EC may result to huge significant of performance improvement and entire system Arulrajah, In line with the above discussion, EC boosts and enforces the employees to acquire suitable ethical behavior in discharging their responsibilities within the organization. In this regards, ethical behavior of employees viewed as essential in realizing organizational success and performance Brown et al.
Although the link between performance appraisal and OP has been tested empirically, the procedures through which performance appraisal influence OP needs to make clear. To clarify this, there is need to develop and test the mediating mechanism through which training and development utilization can lead to improved OP. Previous studies revealed that EC link to OP. For instance. Hijal-Moghrabi et al. The study carried out by Sabiu et al.
It was found that EC significant associated with OP. Similarly, Bowman and Knox investigate the influence of ethics on public managers in American public sector, it was found that ethics significantly predict OP. Despite the argument in the literature, still, there are needs for more empirical investigation on the link between performance appraisal, EC and OP. Therefore, on the basis of theoretical and empirical support, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that: HA2. Ethical climate is significantly positively related to organizational performance.
Moreover, prior hypotheses highlight the linkages between performance appraisal, EC, and OP. Indirectly, the discussion proposes that performance appraisal affect OP through the influence of EC. Hence, this study argues that EC may play a mediating role on the link between performance appraisal and OP. Therefore, on the basis of previous studies, this study hypothesizes that: HA3.
Ethical climate significantly positively mediates the relationship between performance appraisal and organizational performance. The review of related literature above revealed that both performance appraisal and EC may influence OP. Then, the differing impact of performance appraisal and EC determination in OP improvement is still uncertain. Hence, this has put an interest to the researcher towards examining the relationship of both performance appraisal and EC and organization performance.
A conceptual model framework was developed by combing the framework of the study carried out by Arulrajah, , Sabiu et al. On the basis of RBV theoretical perspectives and empirical studies, a research framework for this study as depicted in Figure 1 shows the relationship between the independent variables performance appraisal mediating variable EC and the dependent variable organization performance. The model was assessed using two-step approaches such as measurement model and structural model Hair et al.
In this study, we use RBV with a major focus on how firm resources tangible and intangible develop and affect organization performance.
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The RBV argued that internal resources considered to be one of the best resources that can improve competitive advantage among the competing organization. RBV, which stated that human resource system can leads to competitive advantage through resources that are indirectly within the organizational circle like ethics Barney, ; Reed and DeFillippi, ; Wright and McMahan, In addition, Baron and Kenny argued that the inclusion of mediator or moderator variable could best address the inconsistencies in research findings hence the inclusion of EC variable in the current study.
It is also regarded as a set of norms, procedures, policies, and practices walled in the organizational lifecycle that usually guided employees to conducts their behavior with a high level of ethics for organizational development Martin and Cullen, ; Schluter et al.
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A quantitative survey research approach using exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional design was employed in this study to understand the mediating effect of EC on the relationship between performance appraisal and OP. The decision to select the type of research design to be used depends on the understanding and clearness of the research problem. In this case, the research is required to understand the problem before developing any model Zikmund, ; Sekaran, Descriptive research is conducted when there is some understanding of the nature of the problem; such research study is used to provide a more specific description of the problem Zikmund, ; Sekaran, The research setting was a cross-sectional study design.
It involves gathering the data only once or at one point in time to meet the research objectives. A self-administered hand delivery and collection survey questionnaire were used as the main sources of data collection strategy to reach the respondents who are employees of Ministry of Education, Parastatals, Boards and Agencies in the seven 7 States of Northern Nigeria. For this study, a probability sampling method and techniques were used; each unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected in the sample.
Simple random and stratified sampling technique was being utilized in this study. A comprehensive population frame of employees in seven 7 States of Northern Nigeria are accumulated, and the sample size was calculated to be Krejcie and Morgan, The second step followed the selection of the samples that are from the seven states. This respondent from each state is considered to be the most qualified representation that are knowledgeable enough about the operational activities, administration, and performance of their organization operating in Public Education sector in Northern Nigeria.
The justification for employing the probability sampling techniques was given each respondent an equal chance of being selected as the sample object Sekaran, Furthermore, a representative sample in the probability sampling design guarantees the equal and independent representation of data being chosen. The advantage of this sampling method is that there is no bias of the researcher against the choice of another.
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It is also regarded for its high generalizability. Furthermore, the aim of this study is to have samples drawn from seven 7 States of Northern Nigeria.
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A structured closed-ended questionnaire was adapted from previous studies with measurement scale of five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree is adopted to collect response on the items for AP scale and items for EC scale adopted from; items for OP from Wan and Preko The PLS path modeling was considered appropriate technique of data analysis for some reasons: First, the PLS path modeling considered being suitable data analysis technique in this study, because, it can simultaneously assess the measurement model, which describes the link between theory latent constructs and data corresponding indicators as well as relationships among constructs, also called the structural model Hair et al.
Second, the goal of the present study is to predict the mediating effect of EC on the relationship between performance appraisal and OP. Hence, the present study is predictive oriented and PLS path modeling is appropriate Hair et al. Finally, PLS path modeling is deem approprite because it has been suucesfully applied in extant management related studies Kura et al. This section discussed how the data collected in the course of the study analyzed using SmartPLS 3. Measurement model assessment was commenced where the composite reliability, Average variance extracted AVE and item loadings of the study constructs were evaluated as well as discriminant validity were also examined for all the reflective constructs performance appraisal, OP.
For the formative constructs EC the collinearity and significance assessment was also carried out. The structural model assessment was commenced by testing the path coefficient hypotheses among the variables under study were decisions on the supported or rejected of the hypotheses was also indicated, assessment of R 2 square, effect size f 2 and predictive relevance of the whole model.
As discussed earlier in the methodology, the study used SmartPLS 3. This instrument analyses data for measurement models which are filtering the model for all the reflective constructs PA and OP. The measurement model fundamentally determines the reliability of the measurement scales used in the study and it also treats the goodness of fit of the model to be able to determine the global applicability Ramayah et al. Table I above shows the results of the factor loadings, composite reliability and AVE calculations of all the reflective constructs PA, OP under study.
The following Table II presents the result of discriminant validity evaluation.